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JOHN C. CALHOUN.

The views and motives of a people whose public counsels have taken this direction, are liable not to be appreciated by those who have known the General Government only from its benefits, and have no reason to fear its antagonism. The active agency taken in public affairs by men of education, of talent, and of property in the Southern States, plainly shows that the rights of the States are held as involving their deepest interests. They have been at all times determined that their States shall maintain their due and proper influence manifested this determination through the press, their legislative bodies, in Congress, and in public discussion. The ability with which the cause has been sustained, and the devotion and disinterestedness with which it has been upheld, has created and sustained an influence which is all prevailing among the people of those States, and is fortified by the concurrence in these opinions of a large mass of citizens of other States.

In the judgment of the soundest statesmen of this Republic, and of a large majority of the people, the preservation of the Union is only to be maintained by the confinement of the powers of the General Government within the limits of the Constitution.

Those who have read the history of the contests of civil liberty, must see that safety is only secured by the vigilant opposition which every assault of power instantly encounters from the spirit and intelligence of the governed. Instead of permitting the aggressions of power to accumulate and acquire such a hold on opinion as to sanction their continuance, and then seeking relief in public resistance and civil war, the present theory of free government is to resist the first tendency of power towards aggression in constitutional rights, and thus nip the evil in the bud. The policy is preventive rather than remedial, and commends itself to the plainest understanding of man. So thought Mr. CALHOUN, and on this principle he acted.

When Mr. CALHOUN in the midst of a state of disquietude and alarm, which be had for a long time foreseen and predicted, made his last appeal to the Senate and to the people of the non-slave holding States, as the arbiters of the future security of the Union, be was unable to declare it orally: it was read by another by permission. His

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